Sphingosine 1-phosphate receptors are G-protein-coupling receptors which contain 5 members called S1P1, S1P2, S1P3, S1P4, S1P5 receptors. The activation of S1P receptors can result in activation of the small guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase) Ras and the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) leading to proliferation. Signaling started from S1P receptor is associated with activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K) and protein kinase B (PKB or Akt) which are involved in increasing survival or inhibiting apoptosis. Activation of protein kinase C (PKC) and phospholipase C (PLC) are also related to S1P receptors leading to increasing free calcium in cell.
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